This text initially appeared at Russia & India Report
Within the interval previous the Tatar-Mongol invasion a singular Russian architectural fashion emerged in Vladimir (176 kilometers from Moscow), as a result of efforts of a number of main historic figures such because the excellent princes Andrei Bogolyubsky (the Pious), Vsevolod the Large Nest and Yuri Dolgoruky. The works of Andrei Rublev, Russia’s most famed icon-painter nonetheless adorn the Uspensky Cathedral.
Vladimir’s Golden Gates
The Golden Gates had been inbuilt 1164 below the reign of Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky. The gates weren’t merely a protection rampart, however a powerful triumphal arch, with the gates of Constantinople as its mannequin. In its first 4 centuries Vladimir’s nice princes would ascend the throne by getting into the city via the Golden Gates.
In keeping with legend, on the eve of their unveiling, the Golden Gates crashed down burying 12 individuals alive. Whereas the trapped individuals had been being looked for, Prince Andrei prayed earlier than a miraculous icon of the Mom of God to save lots of the employees. To everybody’s shock, the employees had been faraway from the collapsed ruins not solely alive, however even virtually with out damage. Prince Andrei then ordered the tiny white stone Church of the Deposition of the Virgin’s Gown to be constructed proper on the gates. Due to this gated church Vladimir’s Golden Gates had no equal in medieval Europe.
In keeping with one other legend, Catherine II’s coach was too large and received caught when passing via the Golden Gates. So, the empress ordered the demolition of the vaults on both facet. Through the Soviet interval the Golden Gates hosted the KGB archive and a few individuals even lived right here. In 1983, in the course of the metropolis’s birthday celebrations, a capsule with a message to Vladimir’s twenty first century inhabitants was embedded in one of many nook towers.
At this time this monument of historic Russian structure is included on UNESCO’s World Heritage Record. On the higher ground of the Golden Gates there may be an exhibition with a small assortment of weapons from completely different epochs and a small, however spectacular creative attraction: a diorama depicting the storming of Vladimir by Mongol troops in 1238.
The Uspensky (Dormition) Cathedral
These days this excellent monument of historic Rus’ white stone structure is on the identical time each a museum and the functioning cathedral of the Vladimir eparchy. Since 1992 it has been on UNESCO’s World Heritage Record.
The Uspensky Cathedral was inbuilt 1158 by Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky (the Pious) and was the primary church of the nation on the time. The inauguration ceremonies of the good princes of northeastern Rus’ had been held right here till the mid-Fifteenth century and the nation’s finest craftsmen had been invited to Vladimir to take part in its building.
The Uspensky Cathedral’s second most necessary perform was to accommodate one in every of Russia’s most necessary icons: the Theotokos of Vladimir (the Vladimir Mom of God).
An icon was delivered to Constantinople from Jerusalem within the fifth century below Emperor Theodosius. It was given to Rus’ from Byzantium in the beginning of the Twelfth century (round 1131) as a gift to the saint Prince Mstislav from the Patriarch of Constantinople. Yuri Dolgoruky’s son, Andrei Bogolyubsky, introduced the icon to Vladimir in 1155. It was then that it was given its present identify and was saved within the Uspensky Cathedral.
The icon is claimed to have miraculous powers and has been credited with saving Rus’ from varied disasters. Throughout Tamerlane’s raid in 1395 the icon was moved to Moscow to guard the town from the invader. The truth that Tamerlane’s troops for no obvious cause withdrew and left the town of Yelets with out reaching Moscow was thought-about the results of an intercession by the Mom of God.
There have been three different circumstances of miraculous liberation from invaders: in 1451 (the raid of the Nogai Tsarevich Mazovsha), in 1480 (the Nice Standoff on the Ugra River) and in 1521 (from the Crimean Khan Mekhmet-Girey). At this time one of many Russian Orthodox Church’s most honored icons is stored within the museum and church of St. Nicholas in Tolmachy, subsequent to the Tretyakov Gallery in central Moscow.
The church constructing has preserved the designs of the pre-Mongol interval of Russian structure virtually intact. Notably worthy of consideration are the Twelfth-century frescoes: the figures of St. Artemy and St. Abraham, the photographs of lilies and peacocks and the one remaining frescoes that may be safely attributed to the hand of Russia’s most well-known icon painter, Andrei Rublev. The baroque iconostasis was carried out by order of Catherine II.
Many representatives of Vladimir’s royal dynasty and clergy are buried within the cathedral’s partitions. The cathedral’s builders – Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky and his brother Vsevolod the Large Nest – relaxation within the northern gallery.
The Cathedral of Saint Demetrius
Vladimir’s important image, the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius (Dmitrievsky sobor), dates again to the Twelfth century and is legendary for its distinctive white stone inlay work. The partitions are coated with the photographs of heavenly vegetation, birds, lions, leopards, griffons with lambs, saints, knights and dragon-people.
A number of options are simply recognizable: King David, the ascension of Alexander the Nice, Saint George and even a number of primary Biblical themes. Nevertheless, to this present day not all of the mysteries of the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius have been absolutely solved.
Few objects from the unique furnishings have survived. Those that do stay embrace a number of frescoes from the Twelfth century, particularly the fragments of a composition referred to as “Judgment Day,” which may be in comparison with the homonymous work by Andrei Rublev within the close by Uspensky Cathedral. At this time the cathedral features solely as a museum and is included on UNESCO’s World Heritage Record.
The Convent of the Nativity of the Holy Mom of God
The Convent of the Nativity of the Holy Mom of God is as outdated as the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius and was inbuilt 1195 utilizing white stone. This male convent is taken into account probably the most historic and honored Russian monasteries. It’s situated a three-minute stroll to the left of the Cathedral of Saint Demetrius in the event you flip your again to the Klyazma River.
For vacationers essentially the most fascinating facet right here will not be a lot the interiors, however extra probably the exteriors of the church: we suggest that you simply stroll alongside all of its grandiose white partitions. From there a powerful view onto the Klyazma River and on outdated Vladimir will open up earlier than your eyes. The Nativity Convent is likely one of the finest locations to get view of the city.
Simply 100 years in the past Vladimir’s third white stone church may very well be discovered right here on the grounds, however within the Nineteenth century it was demolished due to its decrepit state and a brand new greater cathedral was constructed instead. Being the primary heart of monastic life in historic Rus’, the Nativity Convent was additionally well-known as being the burial place of Alexander Nevsky (nonetheless, later by order of Peter I, a few of his relics had been moved to St. Petersburg).
At this time this functioning convent represents a posh of excellent historic significance, regardless of the losses it has suffered.
The Church of St. George the Victorious
Ever since historic occasions Russian princes used to construct church buildings in honor of their very own guardian angels. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, Moscow’s founder, constructed a wood church in honor of his personal celestial protector – the martyr St. George in 1129. This explains the origins of one in every of Russia’s most historic church buildings.
In 1778 the Church burned down, subsequently it was rebuilt from scratch in a provincial baroque fashion that may be a nice rarity on this a part of Russia. Through the Soviet interval the church’s small onion-shaped dome was closely broken by machine-gun fireplace. A salami plant, which dealt with oils and fat, was situated right here. Consequently the traditional frescoes had been ruined and coated by a black, one-centimeter thick layer of soot.
At this time the Church of St. George presents a singular risk to watch the religious lifetime of odd individuals from the Russian provinces. The within gives the attribute coziness of a provincial church: on the ground is a well-worn carpet and slippers are handed out on the entrance simply as you’ll discover in of the overwhelming majority of post-Soviet residences. Outdated girls wrapped in shawls hearken to the priest singing, cross themselves earlier than the great frescoes and admire the Nineteenth-century icons.